Sulfuric acid American English or sulphuric acid historical spellingalso known as oil of vitriolis a mineral acid composed of the elements sulfuroxygen and hydrogenwith molecular formula H 2 SO 4. It is a colorless, odorless, and viscous liquid that is soluble in water and is synthesized in reactions that are highly exothermic. Its corrosiveness can be mainly ascribed to its strong acidic natureand, if at a high concentration, its dehydrating properties.
It is also hygroscopicreadily absorbing water vapor from the air.
Sulfuric acid is a very important commodity chemical, and a nation's sulfuric acid production is a good indicator of its industrial strength. Sulfuric acid is also a key substance in the chemical industry. It is most commonly used in fertilizer manufacture,  but is also important in mineral processingoil refiningwastewater processingand chemical synthesis.
It has a wide range of end applications including in domestic acidic drain cleaners as an electrolyte in lead-acid batteriesin dehydrating a compound, and in various cleaning agents. The Other concentrations are used for different purposes. Some common concentrations are:  . Sulfuric acid reacts with its anhydride, SO 3to form H 2 S 2 O 7called pyrosulfuric acidfuming sulfuric acidDisulfuric acid or oleum or, less commonly, Nordhausen acid.
Pure sulfuric acid is a viscous clear liquid, like oil, and this explains the old name of the acid 'oil of vitriol'. Commercial sulfuric acid is sold in several different purity grades.
Technical grade H 2 SO 4 is impure and often colored, but is suitable for making fertilizer. Analytical grades are also available. Anhydrous H 2 SO 4 is a very polar liquid, having a dielectric constant of around It has a high electrical conductivitycaused by dissociation through protonating itself, a process known as autoprotolysis.
How many molecules are there in 14.1 moles of sulfuric acid, #H_2SO_4#?
The equilibrium constant for the autoprotolysis is . It is also an excellent solvent for many reactions. Because the hydration reaction of sulfuric acid is highly exothermicdilution should always be performed by adding the acid to the water rather than the water to the acid.
This reaction is best thought of as the formation of hydronium ions:. K a1 and K a2 are the acid dissociation constants. Because the hydration of sulfuric acid is thermodynamically favorable and the affinity of it for water is sufficiently strong, sulfuric acid is an excellent dehydrating agent.
Concentrated sulfuric acid has a very powerful dehydrating property, removing water H 2 O from other chemical compounds including sugar and other carbohydrates and producing carbonheatand steam. In the laboratorythis is often demonstrated by mixing table sugar sucrose into sulfuric acid. The sugar changes from white to dark brown and then to black as carbon is formed. A rigid column of black, porous carbon will emerge as well. The carbon will smell strongly of caramel due to the heat generated.
Similarly, mixing starch into concentrated sulfuric acid will give elemental carbon and water as absorbed by the sulfuric acid which becomes slightly diluted. The effect of this can be seen when concentrated sulfuric acid is spilled on paper which is composed of cellulose ; the cellulose reacts to give a burnt appearance, the carbon appears much as soot would in a fire.Sulfuric acid is one of the most important compounds made by the chemical industry.
It is used to make, literally, hundreds of compounds needed by almost every industry. By far the largest amount of sulfuric acid is used to make phosphoric acid, used, in turn, to make the phosphate fertilizerscalcium dihydrogenphosphate and the ammonium phosphates. It is also used to make ammonium sulfate, which is a particularly important fertilizer in sulfur-deficient. It is widely used in metal processing for example in the manufacture of copper and the manufacture of zinc and in cleaning the surface of steel sheet, known as 'pickling'prior to it being covered in a thin layer of tin, used to make cans for food.
It is also used to make caprolactam, which is converted into polyamide 6 and in the manufacture of titanium dioxideused, for example, as a pigment. These figures relate to - It was expected that bythe World production would be over million tonnes mcgroup. The process for producing sulfuric acid has four stages: a extraction of sulfur b conversion of sulfur to sulfur dioxide c conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide d conversion of sulfur trioxide to sulfuric acid.
Easily the most important source of sulfur is its recovery from natural gas and oil. These contain sulfur compoundsboth organic and hydrogen sulfide both of which must be removed before they are used as fuels or chemical feedstock. Another important source of sulfur is as sulfur dioxide from metal refining. Many metal ores occur as sulfides and are roasted to form an oxide and sulfur dioxide, for example, in the manufacture of lead :.
Other metals manufactured from their sulfide ores include coppernickel and zinc. In particular, China makes most of its sulfuric acid from pyrites, an iron sulfide ore. If sulfur is the feedstock, it must first be converted to sulfur dioxide. Molten sulfur is sprayed into a furnace and burnt in a blast of dry air at about K. The sulfur burns with a characteristic blue flame:.
The gases are very hot and so are passed through heat exchangers waste heat boilers. The gases are cooled to about K and the water in the surrounding boiler pipes is converted into steam.
In manufacturing one tonne of sulfuric acid, one tonne of high pressure steam is also produced. A typical plant contains one cylindrical vessel which acts as a fixed bed reactor with four separate beds of catalyst, known as a converter, heated to K, through which the sulfur dioxide and air pass:. The catalyst, vanadium V oxide on silica, is generally in the form of small pellets, to which caesium sulfate has been added as a promoter Figure 2. The function of the promoter is to lower the melting point of vanadium V oxide so that it is molten at K.
As shown above, it is an exothermic reaction so, for a satisfactory yield of sulfur trioxide above Thus, heat is removed from the gas leaving each bed using heat exchangers. The sulfur trioxide produced is removed between the third and fourth beds and flows to the next stage, the conversion of sulfur trioxide to sulfuric acid. However, a small amount of the sulfur dioxide is not converted and is passed through the fourth bed of catalyst and the resulting gases, mainly sulfur trioxide, flow to the next stage.
Based on diagram given by Mike Sellars. The sulfur trioxide formed from the third bed and the small amount from the fourth bed are now converted to sulfuric acid. Sulfur trioxide reacts with water and the reaction can be expressed as:. This is kept at this concentration by addition of water and removal of acid at that concentration. To keep the temperature at about K, the heat is removed by heat exchangers, Figure 4.Sulfamic acidalso known as amidosulfonic acidamidosulfuric acidaminosulfonic acidand sulfamidic acidis a molecular compound with the formula H 3 NSO 3.
This colourless, water-soluble compound finds many applications. This pattern can extend no further in either direction without breaking down the sulfonyl —SO 2 — moiety. Sulfamates are derivatives of sulfamic acid. Sulfamic acid is produced industrially by treating urea with a mixture of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid or oleum.
The conversion is conducted in two stages:. The relevant bond distances are 1. The greater length of the S—N is consistent with a single bond. Aqueous solutions of sulfamic acid are unstable and slowly hydrolyse to ammonium bisulfatebut the crystalline solid is indefinitely stable under ordinary storage conditions.
Its behaviour resembles that of ureaH 2 N 2 CO. Both feature amino groups linked to electron-withdrawing centres that can participate in delocalised bonding. Because the solid is not hygroscopicit is used as a standard in acidimetry quantitative assays of acid content. With nitrous acidsulfamic acid reacts to give nitrogen :. The reaction of excess hypochlorite ions with sulfamic acid or a sulfamate salt gives rise reversibly to both N -chlorosulfamate and NN -dichlorosulfamate ions. Consequently, sulfamic acid is used as hypochlorite scavenger in the oxidation of aldehydes with chlorite such as the Pinnick oxidation.
Upon heating sulfamic acid will react with alcohols to form the corresponding organosulfates. It is more expensive than other reagents for doing this, such as chlorosulfonic acid or oleumbut is also significantly milder and will not sulfonate aromatic rings.
Products are produced as their ammonium salts. Such reactions can be catalyzed by the presence of urea. Sulfamic acid is mainly a precursor to sweet-tasting compounds. Related compounds are also sweetenerssuch as acesulfame potassium. Sulfamic acid is used as an acidic cleaning agentsometimes pure or as a component of proprietary mixtures, typically for metals and ceramics.
It is frequently used for removing rust and limescalereplacing the more volatile and irritating hydrochloric acidwhich is cheaper. When compared to most of the common strong mineral acids, sulfamic acid has desirable water descaling properties, low volatility, and low toxicity.
Chemistry help.. could you please tell me how to work out each of these equations?
It forms water-soluble salts of calcium and ferric iron. Sulfamic acid is preferable to hydrochloric acid in household use, due to its intrinsic safety. If erroneously mixed with hypochlorite based products such as bleachit does not form chlorine gas, whereas the most common acids would; the reaction neutralisation with ammoniaproduces a salt, as depicted in the section above.
It also finds applications in the industrial cleaning of dairy and brewhouse equipment. Although it is considered less corrosive than hydrochloric acidcorrosion inhibitors are often added to the commercial cleansers of which it is a component.
It can be used for descaling home coffee and espresso machines and in denture cleaners.I am forever grateful to all the contributors of this page. We are forced to buy a site that does NOTHING for the students except be our score keeper to tell us if we got the answer right or wrong.
It is only good for the teachers because it relieves them from grading papers. But it is a rip off for starving students wanting to learn the material. So, thank you so much to all that contribute. I hope this helped slightly When it asks you about number of molecules it is referring to Avogadro. Trending News. Trump identifies another hoax: The coronavirus. Hosting shakeup on 'Dancing With the Stars'. States extend unemployment while Congress debates.
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How many atoms of nitrogen are there in What is the mass in grams of 1. How many grams of oxygen are there in How many moles are there in 3. Answer Save.
You need to look at how much 1mole of Mg would be and use ratios - 1mole Mg - Still have questions? Get your answers by asking now.How many moles Sulfuric Acid in 1 grams? The answer is 0. We assume you are converting between moles Sulfuric Acid and gram. The SI base unit for amount of substance is the mole.
Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results. Use this page to learn how to convert between moles Sulfuric Acid and gram. Type in your own numbers in the form to convert the units! You can do the reverse unit conversion from grams Sulfuric Acid to molesor enter other units to convert below:.
In chemistry, the formula weight is a quantity computed by multiplying the atomic weight in atomic mass units of each element in a chemical formula by the number of atoms of that element present in the formula, then adding all of these products together. If the formula used in calculating molar mass is the molecular formula, the formula weight computed is the molecular weight.
The percentage by weight of any atom or group of atoms in a compound can be computed by dividing the total weight of the atom or group of atoms in the formula by the formula weight and multiplying by A common request on this site is to convert grams to moles. To complete this calculation, you have to know what substance you are trying to convert.
The reason is that the molar mass of the substance affects the conversion. This site explains how to find molar mass. Formula weights are especially useful in determining the relative weights of reagents and products in a chemical reaction.
These relative weights computed from the chemical equation are sometimes called equation weights. Using the chemical formula of the compound and the periodic table of elements, we can add up the atomic weights and calculate molecular weight of the substance. We use the most common isotopes. This is how to calculate molar mass average molecular weightwhich is based on isotropically weighted averages.
This is not the same as molecular mass, which is the mass of a single molecule of well-defined isotopes. For bulk stoichiometric calculations, we are usually determining molar mass, which may also be called standard atomic weight or average atomic mass. When calculating molecular weight of a chemical compound, it tells us how many grams are in one mole of that substance.
The formula weight is simply the weight in atomic mass units of all the atoms in a given formula. You can find metric conversion tables for SI units, as well as English units, currency, and other data. Type in unit symbols, abbreviations, or full names for units of length, area, mass, pressure, and other types.
Examples include mm, inch, kg, US fluid ounce, 6'3", 10 stone 4, cubic cm, metres squared, grams, moles, feet per second, and many more!A mole calculation in a solution requires using the molarity formula. The volume of the solution and the solution concentration is needed. Molarity is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. A solute, which can be solid, liquid or gas, is a substance that is dissolved in a solvent. The solvent is another substance that is capable of dissolving it within its intermolecular spaces.
Together, the dissolved solute and the solvent make a solution. Molarity is also considered molar concentration because it is the measure of a concentration of a solution.
The formula for molarity may be expressed as:. To fully understand molarity, the mole concept must be understood. A mole often abbreviated to mol is a unit of measurement. It is a certain amount. If a dozen bagels were purchased, the amount, if counted, would be 12 bagels. A mole, like the word dozen, denotes a particular amount, too.
If a mole of bagels were purchased, they would nearly fill the interior space of the Earth. Although a mole of anything can be counted, it is usually reserved for incredibly small items, like atoms and molecules. One mole of any element or chemical compound is always the same number. One mole of hydrogen would mean there are 6. A mole of sodium chloride, NaCl, is the same amount, 6. Here, however, it is 6.
With molarity, consider the moles of solute as finding the number of molecules in solution. Example problem : Sugar, or sucrose, easily dissolves in water. How many moles of sucrose are in a 0.
In the problem, the molar concentration, M, is given: 0. The volume is assumed to be 1 L since the definition of molarity is moles of solute per liter of solution. Commonly, a question asks for grams of solute, especially if the substance must be measured in a laboratory setting.
If the question asks for how many grams of sucrose must be added to make a 0. While the counted amount of a mole of any substance is 6. For example, sodium chloride, NaCl, will have a different mass than table sugar, sucrose, C 12 H 22 O Every element has a different molar mass, commonly located under the symbol on a periodic table.
For example, one mole of carbon C has a mass of The molar mass of hydrogen H is 1. For example, the molar mass of sucrose would be calculated by adding the molar masses of the individual elements:. The molar mass of sucrose, C 12 H 22 O 11is Use the number of moles calculated in Step 2 and the molar mass of sucrose from Step 3 to solve for grams:.How many moles Sulfuric Acid in 1 grams?
The answer is 0. We assume you are converting between moles Sulfuric Acid and gram. The SI base unit for amount of substance is the mole. Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results. Use this page to learn how to convert between moles Sulfuric Acid and gram. Type in your own numbers in the form to convert the units! You can do the reverse unit conversion from grams Sulfuric Acid to molesor enter other units to convert below:.
In chemistry, the formula weight is a quantity computed by multiplying the atomic weight in atomic mass units of each element in a chemical formula by the number of atoms of that element present in the formula, then adding all of these products together.
We use the most common isotopes. This is how to calculate molar mass average molecular weightwhich is based on isotropically weighted averages. This is not the same as molecular mass, which is the mass of a single molecule of well-defined isotopes. For bulk stoichiometric calculations, we are usually determining molar mass, which may also be called standard atomic weight or average atomic mass. If the formula used in calculating molar mass is the molecular formula, the formula weight computed is the molecular weight.
The percentage by weight of any atom or group of atoms in a compound can be computed by dividing the total weight of the atom or group of atoms in the formula by the formula weight and multiplying by Formula weights are especially useful in determining the relative weights of reagents and products in a chemical reaction.
These relative weights computed from the chemical equation are sometimes called equation weights. A common request on this site is to convert grams to moles. To complete this calculation, you have to know what substance you are trying to convert.
The reason is that the molar mass of the substance affects the conversion. This site explains how to find molar mass. When calculating molecular weight of a chemical compound, it tells us how many grams are in one mole of that substance.
The formula weight is simply the weight in atomic mass units of all the atoms in a given formula.